S13. Thought on Space (ancient - modern)

"...space and time were unreal since they could neither act nor be acted upon by matter"- Zeno of Citium

"...since everything which is moved is moved into a certain place, it is plain that the place where the thing moving or being moved shall be, must exist first."- Pythagorean philosopher Archytas (428-347 BCE)

"...space is defined by that which contains it."- Aristotle (384-322 BCE)

"Time by itself does not exist ... It must not be claimed that anyone can sense time by itself apart from the movement of things."- Lucretius (c. 99-55 BCE) 

"God created the world with time, not in time"- Saint Augustine (354-430) 

"Place is not the adjacent part of the surrounding body ... It is a given interval, measurable in three dimensions; it is distinct from the bodies in it, and is, by its very nature, incorporeal. In other words, it is the dimensions alone, devoid of any body."- John Philoponus (c. 490-570)

"The fixed stars (which are so many suns) agree with our sun in enjoying perpetual rest"- Galilei Galileo (1564-1642)

"The fact that the water's surface gradually assumed a concave shape showed that it was spinning with respect to something; how else would it know what to do? Proof of the reality of space, in other words, could be found in the inertia of matter"- Sir. Isaac Newton (1643-1727)

"space is nothing else but an order of the existence of things, observed as existing together; and therefore the fiction of a material finite universe, moving forward in an infinite empty space, cannot be admitted ... Such an action would be without any design in it: it would be working without doing any thing ... There would happen no change, which could be observed by person whatsoever"- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

"Suppose that the sky of fixed stars is created; suddenly from the conception of the approach of the globes to different parts of the sky the motion will be conceived."- Bishop George Berkeley (1685-1753)

"No one is competent to say how the experiment would turn out if the sides of the vessel increased in thickness and mass until they were ultimately several leagues thick". A sufficiently massive bucket, in other words, might carry the local inertial frame of the water around with it, leaving the water's surface flat"- Ernst Mach (1838-1916)

 "As a matter of fact, one should no longer speak of Mach's principle at all"- Einstein

"I must ... assuredly disclaim general relativity to be a forerunner of the relativists"- Ernst Mach

"The views of space and time which I wish to lay before you have sprung from the soil of experimental physics, and therein lies their strength. They are radical. henceforth, space by itself, and time by itself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and only a kind of union of the two will preserve an independent reality." - Hermann Minkowski

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